to Camera Brands: Navigating the World of Photography
Are you a budding photographer looking to invest in a reliable camera? Perhaps you’re an amateur photographer who wants to upgrade your gear?
Whatever your level of expertise, finding the right camera can be an overwhelming task. With countless brands and models available in the market, it’s essential to have a good understanding of camera brands.
In this article, we will provide an overview of different camera brands, focusing on one of the most respected brands, Canon. 1.
Camera Brands Overview
When it comes to camera brands, there is an extensive range to choose from. Each brand offers its unique features and strengths.
Here are a few popular camera brands:
– Canon: Known for its high-quality cameras and lenses, Canon is a trusted brand among professionals and enthusiasts alike. – Nikon: Similar to Canon, Nikon is highly regarded for its DSLR cameras and lenses.
– Sony: Sony has gained popularity in recent years with its mirrorless cameras, offering excellent image quality and advanced features. – Fujifilm: Fujifilm is known for its retro-styled cameras that combine classic looks with modern technology.
– Olympus: Olympus specializes in mirrorless cameras, offering compact and lightweight options for travel and street photography. 2.
Importance of Knowing Camera Brands
Knowing camera brands can greatly help you when navigating the camera marketplace. Here’s why it’s important:
Understanding the Reputation: Different brands have different reputations in terms of reliability, image quality, and customer support. If you’re investing a significant amount of money in a camera, it’s crucial to consider the brand’s reputation.
b. Compatibility: Different camera brands have their lens mounts, which means lenses from one brand might not be compatible with another.
Knowing which brands are compatible with your existing gear or accessories can help you make an informed decision. c.
User Interface and Ergonomics: Each camera brand has its own user interface and ergonomics. It’s essential to choose a camera brand that aligns with your preferences and feels comfortable to use.
d. Availability of Accessories: Popular camera brands often have a wide range of accessories available, such as lenses, flashes, and battery grips.
If you plan on expanding your camera setup, choosing a brand with ample accessory options can make your photography journey more convenient. 3.
Canon is a well-respected camera brand with a long-standing reputation in the industry. Known for its reliability and excellent image quality, Canon offers a wide range of cameras for different purposes.
Canon cameras are divided into two main categories: DSLR (Digital Single-Lens Reflex) and mirrorless cameras. a.
DSLR Cameras: Canon’s DSLR cameras are known for their sturdy build, excellent ergonomics, and exceptional image quality. They are favored by professionals for their reliability and extensive lens selection.
Canon’s flagship DSLR, the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV, offers a full-frame sensor, high ISO performance, and advanced autofocus capabilities. b.
Mirrorless Cameras: In recent years, Canon has also embraced the mirrorless camera technology. Mirrorless cameras eliminate the bulky mirror system found in DSLRs, resulting in more compact and lightweight cameras.
Canon’s mirrorless lineup includes the EOS R series, which offers excellent image quality, advanced autofocus, and a growing range of native RF lenses. 4.
Canon Camera Models
Canon offers a diverse range of camera models within its DSLR and mirrorless lineups. Here are a few popular Canon camera models:
Canon EOS 5D Mark IV: A flagship DSLR camera, the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV features a 30.4-megapixel full-frame sensor, a Dual Pixel CMOS autofocus system, and 4K video recording capabilities. It’s a versatile camera suitable for various genres of photography.
b. Canon EOS R: Canon’s first full-frame mirrorless camera, the EOS R, offers a 30.3-megapixel sensor, Dual Pixel CMOS autofocus, and a fully articulating touchscreen.
With excellent image quality and advanced features, it’s a popular choice for both photography and videography. c.
Canon EOS Rebel T7i: The EOS Rebel T7i is an entry-level DSLR camera that offers a 24.2-megapixel sensor, an advanced autofocus system, and a vari-angle touchscreen. It’s a user-friendly camera perfect for beginners and enthusiasts.
d. Canon EOS M50: Canon’s entry-level mirrorless camera, the EOS M50, features a 24.1-megapixel APS-C sensor, Dual Pixel CMOS autofocus, and 4K video recording capabilities.
It’s a compact and lightweight camera suitable for vlogging and travel photography. In conclusion, understanding camera brands and their offerings is crucial when embarking on your photography journey.
Canon, with its respected reputation and a wide range of cameras, is a brand worth considering. Whether you opt for Canon or explore other brands, knowing the strengths and features of different brands will undoubtedly help you make an informed decision.
So, start your research, explore camera forums, read reviews, and find the camera that suits your needs and preferences. Happy shooting!
When it comes to camera brands, Nikon is another name that immediately comes to mind. Nikon has established itself as a prominent player in the camera market, particularly for its exceptional DSLR cameras.
Nikon has built a solid reputation for producing high-quality cameras with advanced technologies and excellent image quality. It offers a diverse range of cameras to cater to the needs of both professionals and enthusiasts.
a. DSLR Cameras: Nikon’s DSLR cameras are widely regarded for their robust build, superb image quality, and impressive autofocus capabilities.
They come in various models, providing a range of features suitable for different genres of photography. One of Nikon’s flagship DSLR cameras is the Nikon D850, which boasts a 45.7-megapixel full-frame sensor, fast autofocus, and 4K UHD video recording capabilities.
With its outstanding dynamic range and low-light performance, the Nikon D850 has become a favorite among landscape and portrait photographers. b.
Mirrorless Cameras: In recent years, Nikon has expanded its lineup to include mirrorless cameras. The Nikon Z series offers photographers a more compact and lightweight alternative to DSLRs while still delivering outstanding image quality.
The Nikon Z7, for example, features a 45.7-megapixel full-frame sensor, large electronic viewfinder, and in-body image stabilization. With its hybrid autofocus system and compatibility with a growing range of Z-mount lenses, the Nikon Z7 is a compelling choice for professional photographers and enthusiasts looking to embrace mirrorless technology.
4. Fujifilm: Overview
Fujifilm, an old guard camera brand, has successfully combined classic aesthetics with modern technology.
Fujifilm cameras are known for their retro-inspired designs, intuitive controls, and impressive image quality. Fujifilm has particularly excelled in the mirrorless camera market, offering a unique shooting experience with its X series cameras.
a. X Series: The Fujifilm X series is highly regarded for its outstanding image quality and film simulation modes that replicate the company’s rich heritage in analog photography.
The X-T4, one of Fujifilm’s flagship offerings, boasts a 26.1-megapixel APS-C sensor, in-body image stabilization, and advanced autofocus capabilities. With its stylish design and extensive lens lineup, the X-T4 is a popular choice among street photographers, documentary shooters, and even professionals looking for a compact backup camera.
b. Medium Format Cameras: Fujifilm also distinguishes itself in the medium format camera segment.
Medium format cameras have larger sensors than full-frame cameras, resulting in unparalleled image quality and dynamic range. The Fujifilm GFX series offers photographers the opportunity to delve into the world of medium format photography.
The Fujifilm GFX 100, for instance, features a massive 102-megapixel sensor, 5-axis in-body image stabilization, and 4K video recording capabilities. It’s a camera that caters to professionals who demand the utmost in image quality and detail.
Fujifilm’s commitment to quality and innovation extends beyond its cameras. The company also produces a range of high-quality lenses that complement their camera systems.
From compact and portable prime lenses to versatile zoom lenses, Fujifilm offers a robust selection for photographers to choose from. In conclusion, Nikon and Fujifilm are both reputable camera brands that have made significant contributions to the photography industry.
Nikon’s DSLR cameras are favored for their reliability and exceptional image quality, while Fujifilm’s X series cameras provide unique shooting experiences and stunning image rendering. Whether you opt for Nikon or Fujifilm, both brands offer a wide range of camera models and lenses that cater to the needs and preferences of photographers at various skill levels.
Take your time to research, test out the cameras, and discover the brand that resonates with your photographic vision. Embrace the world of photography, capture moments, and create art that reflects your unique perspective.
5. Sony: Overview
Sony, known for its technological prowess in various industries, has made a significant impact on the camera market with its innovative mirrorless cameras.
With cutting-edge technology and impressive image quality, Sony cameras have gained immense popularity among photographers of all levels. a.
Mirrorless Cameras: Sony’s mirrorless cameras have revolutionized the photography industry. By removing the traditional mirror system found in DSLRs, Sony has created more compact and lightweight cameras while maintaining exceptional image quality.
The Sony Alpha series, including models like the Sony Alpha A7 III, offers full-frame sensors, advanced autofocus systems, and impressive low-light capabilities. Furthermore, Sony has consistently pushed the boundaries of mirrorless technology, releasing the Sony Alpha 1, a flagship camera that boasts a 50.1-megapixel full-frame sensor, 8K video recording, and an impressive 30 frames per second burst shooting speed.
Sony’s commitment to constant innovation has made it a top choice for professionals and enthusiasts alike. b.
Compact Cameras: Sony also offers an impressive range of compact cameras that cater to photographers seeking portability without compromising on image quality. The Sony Cyber-shot series, such as the Sony RX100 VII, features advanced imaging technology within a pocket-sized camera.
With high-resolution sensors, fast autofocus, and comprehensive shooting modes, these compact cameras deliver outstanding image quality and versatility for everyday use or travel photography. 6.
Olympus, an old guard camera brand with a rich history in the photography industry, has a reputation for producing cameras that excel in compactness and portability. Renowned for their exceptional image stabilization technology and weather-sealed bodies, Olympus cameras have a dedicated following among photographers who prioritize mobility.
a. OM-D Cameras: The Olympus OM-D series is known for its compact size, retro design, and advanced features.
Equipped with Micro Four Thirds sensors, these cameras deliver impressive image quality while remaining lightweight and easy to carry. The Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark III, for instance, offers a 20.4-megapixel sensor, in-body image stabilization, and responsive autofocus.
With its robust build quality and extensive lens lineup, the OM-D series appeals to photographers who value versatility and mobility. b.
Tough Compact Camera: Olympus also offers the Tough series, a line of rugged compact cameras designed for outdoor enthusiasts and adventurers. These cameras are waterproof, shockproof, and freeze-proof, making them an ideal choice for underwater photography, hiking, or extreme sports.
The Olympus Tough TG-6, with its 12-megapixel sensor, versatile lens, and built-in underwater modes, provides photographers with a reliable and durable option for capturing stunning images in challenging environments. In conclusion, Sony and Olympus are distinct camera brands that cater to different needs and preferences in the photography world.
Sony’s mirrorless cameras have pushed the boundaries of technology, offering exceptional image quality and advanced features in compact bodies. On the other hand, Olympus focuses on providing portable and rugged camera solutions with advanced image stabilization technology.
Both brands offer a range of camera models and lenses that cater to the diverse requirements of photographers. Whether you choose Sony for its technological advancements or Olympus for its compact and durable cameras, both brands ensure that you can capture exceptional images while on your photography journey.
7. Panasonic Lumix: Overview
Panasonic Lumix is a brand known for its high-quality hybrid cameras that combine the best of both worlds professional photography and video recording.
With their advanced technologies and versatility, Panasonic Lumix cameras have gained recognition among photographers and videographers alike. a.
Hybrid Cameras: Panasonic Lumix cameras are renowned for their ability to deliver exceptional still images and high-quality video footage. These hybrid cameras are designed to meet the demands of both photographers and videographers, making them ideal for those who want a versatile camera that excels in multiple shooting scenarios.
One notable series in the Panasonic Lumix lineup is the GH series. b.
GH Series: The Panasonic Lumix GH series, such as the Panasonic Lumix GH5, has been highly praised for its video capabilities. With features like unlimited 4K recording, high frame rate options, and professional-grade codecs, the GH series cameras are favored by content creators, vloggers, and filmmakers.
Additionally, the GH series maintains impressive still photography capabilities with fast autofocus, high-resolution sensors, and customizable controls. The Panasonic Lumix GH5 has become a favorite among professionals, thanks to its excellent image quality and exceptional video performance.
In recent years, Panasonic has also introduced the S series, targeting professional photographers who demand the highest image quality and performance. c.
S Series: The Panasonic Lumix S series cameras utilize a larger full-frame sensor, delivering outstanding image quality with rich details and excellent low-light performance. The flagship model, the Panasonic Lumix S1R, features a 47.3-megapixel sensor, in-body image stabilization, and a high-resolution electronic viewfinder.
With advanced autofocus technology and a robust build, the S series is well-suited for professional photographers who require the utmost precision and image quality for their work. 8.
Leica, a luxury camera brand with a legendary reputation, is synonymous with craftsmanship, precision, and exceptional image quality. Leica cameras are known for their iconic design, impeccable build quality, and the superior optics they offer.
a. Luxury Camera Brand: Leica is a brand that stands in a class of its own.
Each Leica camera is meticulously crafted with attention to detail, ensuring that every component meets the highest standards of quality. Leica cameras not only provide exceptional image quality but also epitomize a sense of exclusivity and luxury.
b. SL Series: The Leica SL series represents the brand’s foray into full-frame mirrorless cameras.
The Leica SL2, for example, boasts a 47.3-megapixel sensor, outstanding image stabilization, and 4K video recording. Leica’s commitment to image quality and precision is evident in the SL series cameras, making them a popular choice among professional photographers who prioritize both aesthetics and performance.
c. Q Series: The Leica Q series is a line of compact cameras renowned for their exceptional image quality and fixed prime lenses.
The Leica Q2, with its 47.3-megapixel sensor, fast autofocus, and weather sealing, captures stunning images in a compact and portable package. The Q series offers photographers an uncompromising shooting experience with its combination of intuitive controls, premium optics, and exceptional image quality.
In conclusion, Panasonic Lumix and Leica are both esteemed brands in the camera industry, each with its own unique strengths and target audience. Panasonic Lumix is recognized for its hybrid cameras that excel in both photography and video recording, with the GH series catering to the needs of content creators and the S series targeting professional photographers.
On the other hand, Leica embraces the ethos of luxury and craftsmanship, offering cameras renowned for their iconic design, exceptional optics, and unparalleled build quality. Whether you choose Panasonic Lumix for its versatility or Leica for its exclusivity, both brands provide photographers with the tools to capture extraordinary images and express their creative visions.
9. Pentax: Overview
Pentax is a camera brand known for its robust build quality, durability, and exceptional weather sealing.
With a rich history in the photography industry, Pentax has established a loyal following among photographers who value cameras that can withstand challenging shooting conditions. a.
Build Quality: Pentax cameras are renowned for their solid construction and resistance to the elements. They are built to withstand harsh conditions, making them suitable for outdoor and adventurous photographers.
Pentax cameras often feature weather sealing, ensuring that they can withstand rain, dust, and cold temperatures. This level of durability and reliability has made Pentax a trusted choice for photographers who require a camera that can handle demanding environments.
b. DSLR Cameras: Pentax has a range of DSLR cameras designed to deliver exceptional image quality and performance.
The Pentax K-1 Mark II, for example, features a full-frame 36.4-megapixel sensor, in-body image stabilization, and an excellent dynamic range. Pentax DSLR cameras offer photographers access to a wide range of lenses and accessories, allowing them to fully explore their creativity in various shooting scenarios.
c. Medium Format Cameras: Pentax also offers medium format digital cameras, providing photographers with an even larger sensor size and unparalleled image quality.
The Pentax 645Z, with its 51.4-megapixel sensor and weather-sealed body, is highly regarded in the medium format camera market. Medium format cameras offer photographers the ability to capture incredible detail and depth in their images, making them a great choice for studio work, landscapes, and commercial photography.
10. Ricoh: Overview
Ricoh, a well-known brand in the world of office equipment, has also made a name for itself in the camera industry.
Ricoh cameras are recognized for their compact designs, advanced features, and innovative technology. a.
Compact Camera Brand: Ricoh specializes in compact cameras that strike a balance between size and performance. The compact size allows photographers to carry these cameras easily while providing high-quality image output and impressive features.
b. GR Series: The Ricoh GR series, including the latest GR III, has gained popularity among street photographers and enthusiasts seeking a highly portable camera with exceptional image quality.
The GR III features a 24.2-megapixel APS-C sensor, a fast prime lens, and an intuitive interface. Ricoh’s GR series is known for its sharp optics, excellent low-light capabilities, and customizable controls, making it a favorite for capturing candid moments and street scenes.
c. Waterproof Cameras: Ricoh also offers a range of durable and waterproof cameras, such as the Ricoh WG series.
These cameras are designed to withstand extreme weather conditions, shock, and submersion in water. The Ricoh WG series cameras are ideal for outdoor adventurers, allowing them to capture their experiences without worry.
With rugged build quality, wide-angle lenses, and various shooting modes, Ricoh waterproof cameras are well-equipped for any outdoor photography excursion. In conclusion, Pentax and Ricoh are camera brands that cater to different niches within the photography market.
Pentax is recognized for its sturdy build quality, weather sealing, and DSLR and medium format cameras that offer exceptional image quality and durability. On the other hand, Ricoh specializes in compact cameras that balance size and performance, with the GR series appealing to street photographers and the waterproof cameras targeting outdoor enthusiasts.
Both brands provide photographers with reliable tools to capture memorable images, ensuring that they can express their creativity and pursue their passion for photography in different shooting conditions. 11.
Polaroid is a brand that has become synonymous with instant photography. With its iconic cameras that produce tangible prints within minutes, Polaroid has captured the nostalgia and joy of capturing and sharing moments instantly.
a. Instant Camera Brand: Polaroid is known for its instant cameras, which allow users to capture a photo and receive a physical print immediately.
This unique experience sets Polaroid apart from other camera brands. The ability to hold a tangible photograph in your hands right after taking it creates a sense of anticipation and a nostalgic charm that digital photography cannot replicate.
b. Polaroid Now: The Polaroid Now is a modern iteration of the classic instant camera.
It features an autofocus system, built-in flash, and multiple exposure capabilities. With its simple and user-friendly design, the Polaroid Now makes instant photography accessible to everyone.
The camera uses i-Type film, which produces classic square-format prints with rich colors and a vintage aesthetic. c.
Polaroid Go: Polaroid has also introduced the Polaroid Go, the smallest analog instant camera in their lineup. This compact camera is easy to carry, making it perfect for capturing on-the-go moments.
The Polaroid Go uses i-Type film and delivers the same instant photo experience as larger Polaroid cameras, allowing users to capture and share memories in an instant. 12.
GoPro has pioneered the action camera industry, revolutionizing the way we capture and share our adventures and experiences. With their rugged build quality, versatile mounting options, and high-performance features, GoPro cameras are favored by athletes, outdoor enthusiasts, and content creators worldwide.
a. Action Camera Brand: GoPro specializes in durable, compact, and waterproof cameras designed for capturing dynamic and fast-paced activities.
These cameras are built to withstand harsh environments and extreme conditions, making them the go-to choice for adventurers seeking to capture their thrilling moments. b.
GoPro Hero: The GoPro Hero series has become synonymous with action cameras. Models like the GoPro Hero 9 Black and the GoPro Hero 10 Black offer high-resolution video and photo capabilities.
With features such as HyperSmooth stabilization, TimeWarp time-lapse, and advanced image processing, GoPro Hero cameras produce stunning footage even in challenging situations. They also offer a robust ecosystem of mounts, accessories, and apps that enhance the versatility of the cameras.
c. GoPro Hero 10: The GoPro Hero 10 Black is the latest flagship model from GoPro, featuring an improved image sensor, enhanced video stabilization, and even faster performance.
With 5.3K video recording, 23-megapixel photos, and advanced features like HyperSmooth 4.0 and TimeWarp 3.0, the Hero 10 delivers exceptional video quality and versatility in a compact package. In conclusion, Polaroid and GoPro are camera brands that have revolutionized the way we capture and share moments.
Polaroid’s instant cameras offer the joy of instant gratification, producing tangible prints that can be shared and cherished. On the other hand, GoPro’s action cameras are designed for capturing dynamic and adventurous experiences, providing durable and high-performance tools for documenting thrilling moments.
Whether you choose Polaroid for its instant photo experience or GoPro for its ruggedness and versatility, both brands offer unique photographic experiences that allow you to capture and relive memories in exciting and tangible ways. 13.
Hasselblad is a prestigious camera brand renowned for its medium format cameras. With a rich heritage and uncompromising commitment to image quality, Hasselblad has become a preferred choice for photographers working in various professional fields.
a. Medium Format Camera Brand: Hasselblad is synonymous with medium format cameras, which utilize larger sensors to capture images with exceptional detail, dynamic range, and color accuracy.
Medium format cameras are highly regarded for their ability to produce breathtakingly beautiful images suitable for commercial, studio, and landscape photography. b.
Hasselblad 907X: The Hasselblad 907X is a notable addition to the Hasselblad lineup. It combines a modern digital back, the CFV II 50C, with a classic revival of the Hasselblad V System, allowing photographers to use a range of Hasselblad lenses across different generations.
With its 50-megapixel sensor, advanced autofocus system, and iconic design, the 907X provides photographers with a seamless blend of heritage and modern technology. c.
Hasselblad X1D: The Hasselblad X1D is a compact and lightweight mirrorless medium format camera. It features a 50-megapixel sensor, impressive dynamic range, and exceptional image quality.
The X1D offers a user-friendly interface, intuitive controls, and a growing range of lenses that make it an attractive option for professional photographers seeking a portable medium format solution. 14.
Kodak, a legendary brand in the world of photography, has left an indelible mark on the industry. With its contributions to film photography and popularization of photography as a mainstream hobby, Kodak has become an iconic name associated with the art of capturing moments.
a. Famous Photography Brand: Kodak holds a significant place in the history of photography.
Their groundbreaking innovations, including the introduction of the Kodak Brownie camera and the popularization of roll film, revolutionized the way people captured and experienced photography in the early 20th century. Kodak’s commitment to making photography accessible to the masses played a crucial role in the democratization of the medium.
b. Kodak PixPro: In the digital age, Kodak offers the Kodak PixPro lineup, which includes a range of compact digital cameras.
These cameras appeal to casual photographers and enthusiasts looking for user-friendly devices that deliver good image quality and a variety of shooting modes. The Kodak PixPro cameras provide an accessible entry point into digital photography with their intuitive controls, affordable price points, and compact designs.
c. Kodak Instant Cameras: Kodak has also embraced the resurgence of instant photography with the release of Kodak instant cameras.
These cameras, inspired by their classic instant film cameras, allow users to capture and print photos immediately. The Kodak Smile Instant Print Digital Camera and the Kodak Printomatic Instant Print Camera are popular choices among those seeking the nostalgic experience of instant photography combined with modern digital technology.
In conclusion, Hasselblad and Kodak represent two iconic brands that have left an enduring legacy in the world of photography. Hasselblad’s medium format cameras are renowned for their exceptional image quality and are favored by professional photographers seeking the utmost in detail, dynamic range, and color accuracy.
Kodak, on the other hand, holds a special place in the history of photography, having played a significant role in popularizing the medium and making it accessible to the masses. Whether you choose Hasselblad for its medium format prowess or Kodak for its heritage and accessibility, both brands continue to contribute to the art of photography and provide photographers with tools to capture and preserve treasured moments.
15. Sigma: Overview
Sigma is a well-respected brand in the photography industry primarily known for its high-quality lenses and accessories.
With their commitment to innovation and craftsmanship, Sigma has earned a strong reputation among photographers seeking exceptional image quality and versatility in their equipment. a.
Lens and Accessory Brand: Sigma’s main focus is on producing lenses and accessories that deliver outstanding optical performance and compatibility with a variety of camera systems. Sigma lenses are known for their excellent sharpness, color reproduction, and build quality.
The brand offers a wide range of lenses, including primes, zooms, telephoto, and macro lenses, catering to different photography styles and needs. Additionally, Sigma provides a comprehensive lineup of accessories such as filters, lens converters, and flash units to enhance photographers’ creative options.
b. Sigma FP: In recent years, Sigma expanded its offering beyond lenses and introduced the Sigma FP, a compact full-frame mirrorless camera.
The Sigma FP is designed to be a versatile tool for photographers and videographers, with a focus on portability and customization. The camera boasts a 24.6-megapixel sensor, a compact body, and access to a wide selection of Sigma lenses.
It offers 4K UHD video recording, impressive image quality, and the ability to adapt to various shooting conditions. c.
Sigma SD Cameras: In addition to their lens expertise, Sigma also produces their own line of digital cameras, known as the Sigma SD series. These cameras utilize the Foveon sensor, a unique technology that captures color information vertically, resulting in exceptional color accuracy and detail rendition.
The Sigma SD Quattro and Sigma SD Quattro H are notable models within the SD series. These cameras are designed primarily for photographers seeking the utmost in image quality, particularly in terms of color reproduction and tonal range.
One of the key advantages of Sigma’s camera lineup is its compatibility with the Sigma Global Vision (SGV) lenses, which are specifically designed and optimized for Sigma cameras. This synergy between camera and lens ensures optimal performance and image quality.
Sigma’s commitment to quality extends beyond their products’ performance. The company offers an innovative service called the Sigma Mount Conversion Service, allowing u